Indus Valley Civilisation - 2200 BC
Known as Oldest Civilization in the world, it flourished around River Indus, and covered major areas of Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, areas of Haryana, Gujarat etc. This is still considered as one of the most developed civilization of the world. The people of Indus valley civilization had contacts with other civilizations as well. The coins of Mesopotamia, Greece etc were discovered, which proves the trade relations with other parts of the world.
Vedic period - Age of Aryans - 1605 BC
With the emergence of Aryans, the Indian society got influenced by Caste System and created several religious texts in Sanskrit known as Vedas. Still, vedic culture is basis of Indian Society. With the emergence of Brahmanism, and interference of religion in Politics, new religions also took Birth. Some of the new religions which got separated from Hinduism are Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
Alexander the Great - 326 BC
Still considered as one of the greatest conqueror of the world, Alexander, came up to banks of river Ravi on the northern frontier of India. It has left some of the most complex population amalgams in India, and still ancestors of Alexander the Great can be found in some of the valleys of Himachal Pradesh.
Mauryan Empire - 321 BC
Magadha was considered as one of the strongest empire in Indian History. It was central part of Indian subcontinent, covering major areas like Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Bengal etc. Chandragupta Maurya was the greatest ruler of this dynasty, and prosperity reached to its height under the reign of Greatest Emperor Ashoka. Emperor Ashoka is still considered as one of the greatest emperors in Indian History. After looking over the massacre of Kalinga war, he adopted Buddhism, and expanded the religion all over South East Asia, Sri Lanka, Vietnam etc.
Gupta Empire - 321 AD
Gupta empire is mainly considered as Buddhist, but still it spread Hinduism throughout central India. The stable political condition led to construction of several temples, institutions, universities and monasteries. The construction of splendid caves like Ajanta and Ellora, Elephanta etc are some of the finest examples of architecture of Gupta Empire.
Chola Empire - Rule of Rajraja Chola - 800 AD
Cholas were considered as one of the greatest rulers of South India, and they had constructed several remarkable monuments of South India. The splendid temples of Kumbakonam and Brihadeshwara temple of Thanjavur are finest examples of Chola Empire. The heroic victories of Raj Raja Chola are fascinating, and still narrated in several places across south India.
Advent of Islam in India - 1100 AD
With the emergence of Islam in Central Asia, India experienced several military raids from Islamic invaders, and first of all, they attacked Sindh region ( Now in Pakistan). Soon, They came towards areas of Punjab and looted the wealth. With the establishment of Sultanate in 11th century AD, Islamic dominance rose to power. There were several powerful kingdoms like Gujarat and Bengal. It led to the fusion of two cultures and gave rise to Indo Islamic architecture. Some of the most finest buildings of Islamic architecture are Tajmahal, Qutub Minar, Jama mosque, and other remarkable buildings spread across North India.
Vijaynagar Empire & Hampi - 1336 AD
Located in the Karnataka region, Hampi ( Vijaynagar Empire) is known to be one of the mightiest kingdom of south India in 16th century. Hampi is one of the most visited UNESCO’s world heritage site. The beautiful city of Hampi was one of the most beautiful cities of India. This city faced eventual defeat at Battle of Talikota and hindu rule of South India came to an end.
Mughal rule in India - 1526 AD
The Mughal rule started in India with the attack of Babur, who came from Central Asia. Akbar became renowned ruler of this dynasty, and expanded the rule almost all over India. Some of the most fascinating buildings were constructed during Mughal era and still boast to be finest in the world. The most remarkable example is Taj Mahal – which is still one of the finest man made architecture. Other buildings of Mughal era are Red fort in Delhi, Red fort in Agra, Fatehpur sikri, Humayun’s Tomb etc.
Coming of Europeans in India - 1690 AD
With the start of Industrial revolution in Europe, several countries started the race of colonization. The first ones to come to India were Portuguese who settled on the costs of Goa to prove their monopoly on trade and commerce with Far east countries. Later on, British East India company came, and they remained till India got its freedom in 1947. French also got some territories but mainly in South India. Pondicherry is still a town, which reflects French dominance in its architecture and buildings in South India.